Arguments about philosophy

References and Further Reading 1. The Structural Approach to Characterizing Arguments Not any group of propositions qualifies as an argument. The starting point for structural approaches is the thesis that the premises of an argument are reasons offered in support of its conclusion for example, Govierp.

Arguments about philosophy

Any good argument on any topic in philosophy proceeds from premises that we think are quite likely to be true to substantive conclusions about humanity, the world, and our place in it by way of valid arguments.

Arguments about philosophy

The aim of this article, then, is to provide an overview of the concepts essential to classical logic as well as an understanding of how to construct and recognize good arguments.

Most importantly, though, is why we need arguments in philosophy. To use a contemporary topic, lots of people disagree about moral issues like abortion.

If the argument is good, our opponent will be forced to concede our position on the issue or else give up some of those premises that they had initially agreed to, which can cast doubt on the plausibility of their whole view. For example, suppose that I managed to construct an argument that showed how anti-abortion advocates were committed to believing that the moon is made of cheese.

This is, of course, a fictitious argument, but if I did construct such an argument and anti-abortion advocates stuck to their guns, their view would seem a lot less plausible since most of us know quite well that the moon is not made of cheese.

We should use arguments, then, in order to convince people of the truth of our claims or to cast doubt on the opposing view. The Structure of Arguments Roughly, a deductive argument includes a set of premises which, taken together, logically entail the conclusion.

There are two terms important to describing the success or failure of a particular argument: Validity - An argument is valid when the truth of its premises guarantees the truth of its conclusion. Soundness - An argument is sound when it is both valid and all of its premises are true.

Argument | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Socrates is certainly not a tuna and, as painful as it is, not all tuna are tasty. Notice that this argument is valid. Notice as well that all of the premises are true as of this writingso the argument is also sound. This argument is obviously invalid since the truth of the conclusion is not entailed from the premises.

The ins and outs of symbolic logic and valid entailment are too many to cover here, but if you want to follow up with some reading of your own, almost any intro to logic textbook will do. There is also a free logic textbook by Gary Hardegree available here.

How to Approach Arguments OK, so you have some basic tools for understanding arguments. That is, someone has laid out their premises or not laid them out and thinks that you should agree with their conclusion. How might you evaluate their argument?

When an argument claims that the truth of its premises guarantees the truth of its conclusion, it is said to involve a deductive inference. Deductive reasoning holds to a very high standard of correctness. At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving A lot of philosophy involves arguing about which theory provides the best hypothesis to account for our experience. If God already knows the choices we will make in the future, can we be free?

Check for Soundness and Validity Step 1: Check to see if the argument is valid. There are some very sophisticated ways of doing this, but one general strategy is to suppose that all of the premises are true and then to see if, given this supposition, the conclusion must be true.

If the argument is valid, proceed to step 2. So suppose that I want to check and see if some argument is valid: If I suppose that both 1 and 2 are true, even though they may seem a little dubious, I can see that 3 is indeed entailed from them, so the argument is valid.

Arguments about philosophy

Next we should check to see if the argument is sound.What Is an Argument? An argument is not the same thing as a quarrel. The goal of an argument is not to attack your opponent, or to impress your audience.

The goal of an argument is to offer good reasons in support of your conclusion, reasons that all parties to your dispute can accept.. Nor is an argument just the denial of what the other person says. B offers a reason, [1] the primary function of arguments, unlike explanations, is persuasion, for the thesis [2] no explanation is an argument.

Since B asserts neither [1] nor [2], B . Arguments in philosophy of mind‎ (2 C, 24 P) R Rhetorical techniques‎ (7 C, P) T Thought experiments in philosophy‎ (2 C, 41 P) Pages in category "Philosophical arguments" The following 58 pages are in this category, out of 58 total.

This list may not reflect recent changes. A. In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements (in a natural language), called the premises or premisses (both spellings are acceptable) Deductive arguments are sometimes referred to as "truth-preserving" arguments.

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A deductive argument is said to be valid or invalid. A Guide to Arguments. A critical tool in philosophy is logic.

Any good argument on any topic in philosophy proceeds from premises that we think are quite likely to be true to substantive conclusions about humanity, the world, and our place in it by way of valid arguments.

Feb 16,  · Before we dive into the big questions of philosophy, you need to know how to argue properly. We’ll start with an overview of philosophical reasoning and breakdown of how deductive arguments work.

Logical Arguments