Essay 1 - 2, words Q. Examine the construction of an ideal form of masculinity in American Psycho.
However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive.
In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities.
In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender Examine the construction of masculinity in as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ".
Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them.
Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms.
Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices.
He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex".
Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism. She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scottbegan to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their social activity".
Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts".
However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline".
It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors.
Gender as a process has two central manifestations in political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes".
Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology. Because of this, Newman argues, many privilege sex as being a cause of oppression and ignore other issues like race, ability, poverty, etc.
She also points out that other non-Western cultures do not necessarily have the same views of gender and gender roles. Newman believes this is problematic because there is no unified definition as to what equality means or looks like, and that this can be significantly important in areas like public policy.
Sociologists generally regard gender as a social construct, and various researchers, including many feministsconsider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction.
For instance, sexologist John Money suggests the distinction between biological sex and gender as a role.
However, there are scholars who argue that sex is also socially constructed. It would make no sense, then, to define gender as the cultural interpretation of sex, if sex is itself a gender-centered category.
Gender should not be conceived merely as the cultural inscription of meaning based on a given sex a juridical conception ; gender must also designate the very apparatus of production whereby the sexes themselves are established. She argues that colonial powers used a gender system as a tool for domination and fundamentally changing social relations among the indigenous.
She argues that male and female genitals were considered inherently the same in Western society until the 18th century. · construction of men as the stronger sex. # Elsevier Science Ltd. research typically neglects to examine men and the health risks associated with men’s gender.
lifestyles and adopt fewer health-promoting beliefs and beha-viours. The health risks associated with men’s gender or masculinity have remained largely unproblematic and nationwidesecretarial.com Hegemonic masculinity is the idealised form of masculinity at a given place and time (Connell, ).
It is the socially dominant gender construction that subordinates femininities as well as other forms of masculinity, and reflects and shapes men's social relationships with women and other men; it represents power and nationwidesecretarial.com://nationwidesecretarial.com · To examine the construction of masculinity in ado- lescence, I follow the deployment of, resistance to, and practices sur- rounding sexuality and gender in high nationwidesecretarial.com://nationwidesecretarial.com Examine the construction of masculinity in A Streetcar Named Desire and Death of a Salesman.
In both A Streetcar Named Desire and Death of a Salesman there is a male figure at the head of both families who assert and express their masculinity in quite dissimilar nationwidesecretarial.com://nationwidesecretarial.com · Third, to examine the most popular type of masculinity in each culture, this study coded different magazine titles, based on the fact that magazines with nationwidesecretarial.com · The Construction of Black Masculinity White Supremacy Now and Then Abby L.
Ferber It is this conundrum I seek to examine: How can a White supremacist nation, 14 Journal of Sport & Social Issues. their muscles and their penises as their most important sites” (Collins, , p. 57)nationwidesecretarial.com