It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare.
Works Cited The Testimonium Question The following passage is found in the extant Greek manuscripts of Josephus Ambrosianus in the 11th century, Vaticanus in the 14th century, and Marcianus in the 15th century. This passage is quoted by Eusebius in the fourth century: He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles.
He was the Christ; and when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him, for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him; and the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct to this day.
Opinion on the authenticity of this passage is varied. Feldman surveyed the relevant literature from to in Josephus and Modern Scholarship. Feldman noted that 4 scholars regarded the Testimonium Flavianum as entirely genuine, 6 as mostly genuine, 20 accept it with some interpolations, 9 with several interpolations, and 13 regard it as being totally an interpolation.
It is impossible that this passage is entirely genuine. It is highly unlikely that Josephus, a believing Jew working under Romans, would have written, "He was the Messiah. Indeed, in Wars of the Jews, Josephus declares that Vespasian fulfilled the messianic oracles.
Furthermore, Origen, writing about a Simple essay on natural calamities before Eusebius, says twice that Josephus "did not believe in Jesus as the Christ. Those who favor partial authenticity usually bracket the phrases "if it be lawful to call him a man," "He was the Christ," and "for he appeared to them alive again the third day, as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousan other wonderful things concerning him.
It is sometimes argued that the phrase "to this day" at the end of the passage indicates the perspective of a writer who was writing long after the events in question and that Josephus was too close in time to make it believable that he would have used the expression.
On the contrary, a span of 60 years time after the death of Jesus is sufficient to cause some surprise at the survival of the cult. According to the speech of Gamiliel in Acts 5: It is often argued that the description of Jesus is unusually short for Josephus.
For example, Josephus devotes over twice as much space to the description of John the Baptist. Although suggestive, this argument is not conclusive.
Professor Sanders considers this passage to be "the best objective evidence of the importance of Jesus during his own lifetime. The gospels create the impression that the entire populace was vitally interested in Jesus and what happened to him.
Certainly he did attract attention. But if we measure the general impact of prophetic figures by the degree of disturbance they caused, we shall conclude that Jesus was less important in the eyes of most of his contemporaries than were John the Baptist and the Egyptian In the Antiquities, these descriptions are immediately followed by the Testimonium about Jesus.
In Jewish War 2.
Robert Grant notes that "none of them [John the Baptist, James, or Jesus] is to be found in the parallel passages in his earlier War; presumably Christians had become more important in the interval.
This is simply not true; there are no extant manuscripts before Eusebius. It is also sometimes pointed out that the Josippon, a medieval Hebrew version of Josephus, lacks the passage in question.
However, Josippon is dependent on the text of the Antiquities preserved by Christians, so it is clear that the author of Josippon does not represent an independent manuscript tradition but rather purposely omits the passage.
Feldman writes Josephus, Judaism and Christianity, p.
It is argued that the reference to "the tribe of Christians so named from him" requires the earlier phrase "He was the Christ. Pelletier points out the example of Antiquities It may be assumed that the reader would be aware of Caesar's title.
However, it cannot be assumed that the reader would be aware that Jesus was known as the Christ. Some would avoid this problem by substituting "He was believed to be the Christ" or "He was the so-called Christ" in place of the phrase, "He was the Christ.
Meier argues that the statement "seems out of place in its present position and disturbs the flow of thought. If it were present at all, one would expect it to occur immediately after either 'Jesus' or 'wise man,' where the further identification would make sense.
Hence, contrary to Dubarle, I consider all attempts to save the statement by expanding it to something like 'he was thought to be the Messiah' to be ill advised.The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.
Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (May ) (Learn how . Earthquakes are another common natural disaster that can cause many fatalities. The movements of the plates in the earth’s crust cause them. These plates do not always move smoothly and can get stuck, causing a build-up of pressure.
Natural calamities, such as floods, drought, forest fires, earth-quakes, volcanic eruptions, epidemics etc., sometimes take a heavy toll of plant and animal life.
Floods are frequent in moist Sample essay on Natural Calamities. NATURAL DISASTER: A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth.
A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, . Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.